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Knowledge of:. The evidence guide provides advice on assessment and must be read in conjunction with the performance criteria, required skills and knowledge, range statement and the Assessment Guidelines for the Training Package. Assessment must be carried out in a manner that recognises the cultural and literacy requirements of the assessee and is appropriate to the work performed.

Competence in this unit must be achieved in accordance with food safety standards and regulations.

Manual Physilab Deionizer (Ion Exchanger)

Critical aspects for assessment and evidence required to demonstrate competency in this unit. Assessment must occur in a real or simulated workplace where the assessee has access to:. This unit should be assessed together with other units of competency relevant to the function or work role. An example could be:. To ensure consistency in one's performance, competence should be demonstrated on more than one occasion over a period of time in order to cover a variety of circumstances, cases and responsibilities, and where possible, over a number of assessment activities.

The range statement relates to the unit of competency as a whole. It allows for different work environments and situations that may affect performance. Bold italicised wording, if used in the performance criteria, is detailed below. Essential operating conditions that may be present with training and assessment depending on the work situation, needs of the candidate, accessibility of the item, and local industry and regional contexts may also be included.

Policies and procedures. Work is carried out in accordance with workplace procedures, licensing requirements and legislative requirements. Workplace information.

Ion exchange

Product and materials. Confirming equipment status. Monitoring the process. Process set up, operation and monitoring functions.


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Control points. Control points refer to those key points in a work process that must be monitored and controlled. This includes:. Information systems. Work hazards. Unit descriptor. Application of the unit. Prerequisite units. Carry out transfer operations.

Employability skills. This unit contains employability skills. Prepare the ion exchange process for operation.

[George P. Simon (Auth.)] Ion Exchange Training Manual

Operate and monitor the ion exchange process. Shut down the ion exchange process. Open valves V1 and V15, check that water returns to the sump tank after flowing downwards through the Anion column 5. Open valves V2, V13 and V15, check that water returns to the sump tank after flowing downwards through the Cation column 6 then downwards through Anion column 5. Close all three valves. Connect a flexible tube to sample valve V16 or place a container beneath the valve. Open valves V2, V13 and V Open the drain valve 15 on the effluent tank and ensure that it operates correctly.

Close the valve.

Ion Exchange Training Manual by G.P. Simon, Paperback | Barnes & Noble®

Connect the lead from the inline conductivity sensor to the socket marked INPUT at the top of the conductivity meter. Switch on the conductivity meter 9 by pressing the Power button. Check that the meter indicates the conductivity and temperature of the water a series of dashes in the display indicates that the selected range is not correct — move the range selector switch until the conductivity of the water is indicated. Check the equipment for any leaks. Operation of the Conductivity Meter The conductivity meter is supplied separately and is designed to sit on the bench top alongside the equipment.

The conductivity meter is powered by an internal 9 volt PP3 Alkaline battery. An inline conductivity sensor is installed at the outlet from the bottom manifold so that it can monitor the conductivity of the water following the ion exchange process. The lead from the inline sensor is connected to the socket marked INPUT at the top of the conductivity meter. To operate the conductivity meter, press the POWER button and adjust the position of the range switch until the meter indicates the Conductivity and Temperature.

Dashes in the display indicate that the range switch is in the wrong position and should be adjusted to suit.

How an ion exchange water softener works.

For further information on the conductivity meter refer to the instruction leaflet supplied with the equipment. Equipment Location The equipment is fully self-contained and is designed to be bench mounted. The equipment requires connection to a single phase, fused electrical supply. Four metres of supply cable are provided with the equipment.

A source of clean water will be required for filling the sump tank and a suitable drain for disposing of effluent from the equipment involving dilute hydrochloric acid, dilute sodium hydroxide and dilute sodium chloride. A mains electrical supply is required to operate this product. Refer to Electrical Supply in the Installation section.

Environmental Conditions This equipment has been designed for operation in the following environmental conditions. Operation outside of these conditions may result reduced performance, damage to the equipment or hazard to the operator.

Indoor use; b. Altitude up to m; c. Pollution degree 2. Normally only nonconductive pollution occurs. Temporary conductivity caused by condensation is to be expected. Typical of an office or laboratory environment. Regular maintenance of the equipment is the responsibility of the end user and must be performed by qualified personnel who understand the operation of the equipment. General Disconnect the equipment from the electrical supply when not in use.

go here Clean the storage tanks with distilled or deionised water and flush both columns if different solutions and resins are to be used. Drain any effluent contained in the sump tank after every experiment to a suitable laboratory drain. The conductivity sensor is usually cleaned adequately by passing clean water through the system after use. However, the sensor can be removed from the inline housing if manual cleaning of the electrodes becomes necessary. To remove the sensor, unscrew the large sealing plug on the side of the housing opposite the lead from the sensor then push the sensor through the opening.

The sensor can be totally removed by passing the plug through the opening. This should be lubricated with soapy water before reinserting the sensor into the inline housing after cleaning. Push the sensor fully into the housing then replace the large sealing plug. This resin has a strong affinity for calcium and magnesium ions, and will also remove ferrous ions after the more or less complete removal of calcium and magnesium.

ion exchange

Softening can be carried out as a batch process by stirring a suspension of the resin in the water for a period until equilibrium, or an acceptable level of hardness, is reached. However, it is more convenient to operate a continuous flow process by passing the water slowly downwards through a column of resin beads. The exchange reaction takes place rapidly enough for the upper layers of the bed to approach exhaustion before the lower layers being able to exchange ions. There is thus, a zone of active exchange which moves down the column until the resin at all depths becomes exhausted.

The position at an intermediate stage can be illustrated as shown below. When the zone of active exchange reaches the bottom of the column, the emerging water begins to show an increasing hardness. This is the breakthrough point, when it becomes necessary to regenerate the resin with a strong sodium chloride solution.

Regeneration Theory Theoretically, for every millequivalent meq of hardness as CaCO3 removed from the water under treatment, one millequivalent of NaCl is required for regeneration, ie. Larger quantities of NaCl are therefore used, generally twice or more the theoretical amount. A high level of regeneration gives a resin with a high exchange capacity approaching its theoretical, but it is uneconomic to operate at such a rate that this capacity is fully used in softening.