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The side effects of insulin injections are uncommon.

A Pocket Guide

You may experience redness, swelling and itching or pain at the injection site. But these signs usually resolve in a few days.

On rare occasions, you may have a severe allergic reaction. Too much or too little insulin can have undesirable effects. While too much insulin can cause dangerously low blood sugar levels hypoglycaemia , too little insulin can cause your blood sugar levels to be very high hyperglycaemia. You may gain weight if you are on insulin therapy. That means a person with diabetes who also smokes will need a higher dose of insulin to maintain a […]. It is thus extremely important to ensure that insulin is taken correctly, to avoid any complications that may arise from the incorrect administration.

But if you are taking insulin to manage your diabetes, your risk of developing hypoglycaemia is increased during and after exercise. Sign in. Log into your account.

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Insulin Therapy: A Pocket Guide - Mark W. J. Strachan, Brian M. Frier - Google книги

How Yoga Benefits Your Career. Post Views: 2, Recent Posts. European Diabetes Nursing Volume 10, Issue 2. Read the full text. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Volume 10 , Issue 2 July Pages Related Information. These data are uncertain because further analyses showed neither a positive nor a negative effect comparing both insulin strategies.

ISBN 13: 9781447147596

The length of hospital stay in the sliding scale insulin groups compared with the basal- bolus insulin groups was 0. The results for adverse events other than hypoglycaemic episodes, such as postoperative infections, did not indicate an advantage or disadvantage of either strategy. The average blood glucose level during hospital stay in the sliding scale groups was We are uncertain about these data because analyses showed neither a positive nor a negative effect comparing both insulin strategies. No trial reported on deaths caused by diabetes as such or socioeconomic effects like costs of the interventions or absence from work.

Overall, our confidence in the results for all analysed outcomes was low or very low mainly due to the low number of studies and participants and because the results were not precise, that is they could change in any direction once new studies are published. We are uncertain which insulin strategy SSI or basal- bolus insulin is best for non-critically hospitalised adults with diabetes mellitus.

A basal- bolus insulin strategy in these patients might result in better short-term glycaemic control but could increase the risk for severe hypoglycaemic episodes. The certainty of the body of evidence comparing SSI with basal- bolus insulin was low to very low and needs to be improved by adequately performed, well-powered RCTs in different hospital environments with well-educated medical staff using identical short-acting insulins in both intervention and comparator arms to compare the rigid SSI approach with flexible insulin application strategies. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder resulting from a defect in insulin secretion, function, or both.

Hyperglycaemia in non-critically ill hospitalised people is associated with poor clinical outcomes infections, prolonged hospital stay, poor wound healing, higher morbidity and mortality.

Sliding scale insulin for non-critically ill hospitalised adults with diabetes mellitus

In the hospital setting people diagnosed with diabetes receive insulin therapy as part of their treatment in order to achieve metabolic control. However, insulin therapy can be provided by different strategies sliding scale insulin SSI , basal- bolus insulin, and other modalities. Sliding scale insulin is currently the most commonly used method, however there is uncertainty about which strategy provides the best patient outcomes.

The date of the last search for all databases was December We also examined reference lists of identified randomised controlled trials RCTs and systematic reviews , and contacted trial authors. We included RCTs comparing SSI with other strategies for glycaemic control in non-critically ill hospitalised adult participants of any sex with diabetes mellitus. Two review authors independently extracted data , assessed trials for risk of bias , and evaluated the overall certainty of evidence utilising the GRADE instrument.

Of records screened, we included eight trials that randomised participants with type 2 diabetes SSI participants and participants in comparator groups were available for final analysis.

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We included non-critically ill medical and surgical adults with the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. The mean follow-up time was measured by the mean length of hospital stay and ranged between five and 24 days.