e-book Hardrock Seismic Exploration

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Crabtree and Jan Dewar Errors and Omissions A large volume of data is being converted to make this online archive. If you notice any problems with an article examples: incorrect or missing figures, issue with rendering of formulas etc. The CSEG does not endorse or warrant the information printed. Article References Print. Summary Conventional seismic reflection methods have been used with great success over the past decades to explore sedimentary environments for petroleum resources. Introduction 2D and 3D seismic surveys are used to great advantage in sedimentary basins for hydrocarbon exploration, making them the most important and relied upon tool in the petroleum industry.

Figure 1.

This story is from A Decade of Impact

Location of Canadian 3D seismic surveys for mineral exploration. Figure 2. Left: inline section showing highly reflective mafic-felsic stratigraphy with a possible target.

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Right: depth slice at m illustrating the lateral continuity of stratigraphy and important structural features arrows point to a fault line. Figure 3. Bright spots corresponding to possible sulfide deposits can be seen on both seismic sections. Figure 4: Receiver static corrections from the Matagami 3D survey Adam et al. Total static corrections including shot and receiver effects can be up to ms. Challenge I: Seismic signature of massive sulfide deposits Petrophysics of sulfides Crystalline rocks have average velocities that tend to increase with depth along the Nafe-Drake curve.

Figure 5. Crystalline rocks lie along the Nafe-Drake curve modified from Salisbury et al. Forward modeling studies Acoustic impedances imply that sulfide minerals should be strong reflectors of seismic energy in hardrock backgrounds Salisbury et al.


Service: Seismic data filtering and interpretation

Figure 6. Finite difference model of scattered P left and S right waves for a sphalerite inclusion designed to simulate the Bell Allard orebody in a homogeneous background. Dashed line indicates incident wave direction, and white arrows indicate the single phase reversal at approximately 76 degrees Bohlen et al. Figure 7. Finite difference model of scattered P and S waves through a sulfide orebody in a heterogeneous background upper figures and in a homogeneous background lower figures. White arrow denotes a phase reversal in P waves.

3D Seismic Exploration for Mineral Deposits in Hardrock Environments

The source is located at an offset of m. Challenge II: Seismic data processing The second challenge for seismic exploration programs is to establish processing schemes that enhance AVO trends and better define azimuthal variations. Figure 8. Shot and receiver geometry for prestack migration of 3D seismic data.

All source- receiver contributions are sorted into equivalent offset and azimuth ranges. Figure 9. Equivalent offset gathers from the Matagami 3D seismic survey. Conclusion Mineral ore deposits are characterized by anomalous densities, P and S wave velocities. Share This Article. Crabtree and Jan Dewar. But the technique never gained traction in hard-rock applications, due to a combination of technical challenges caused by the higher-density mineralisation, more complex geology, and the high relative cost of surveys versus drilling in mineral exploration.

They developed a unique combination of novel sampling equipment, low-footprint survey design, innovative data processing algorithms, and a combination of image analysis techniques and seismic processing expertise to demonstrate that the method could be adapted to complex hard-rock geological environments and deliver value for mineral exploration.

The underpinning technology development dates from , where the new data processing algorithms were successfully demonstrated on a large 2D hard-rock high-resolution seismic project. The subsequent establishment of the Centre for High Definition Geophysics at Curtin in allowed Urosevic and Kepic to pursue their over-arching aim to make seismic reflection industrially-relevant and commercially viable for deep mineral exploration.

Technique development and thirty-five increasingly successful field trials gradually attracted strong industry interest and the potential to commercialise the technology. The spin-out company HiSeis Pty Ltd was created by Curtin in to meet the increasing demand for commercial seismic imaging in the minerals industry. It addresses the entire working methodology from planning, data acquisition, processing, and interpretation to hand-over to the asset owner, providing an exploration tool that the industry was desperately in need of.

Seismic reflection addresses the problem of discovering mineral deposits that are deep and under cover — where drilling exploration becomes much more costly and risky. To test our hypothesis, we applied 2D acoustic finite difference forward modeling. The corresponding synthetic data were processed in the same way as the acquired data.

Comparisons between the acquired and the synthetic data show that the model is consistent with observations. We propose a new model for the subsurface of the Cue-Weld Range area and argue that some of the lithologies in the area are repeated structurally at different levels. Our approach highlights the benefit of imaging and modeling of deep seismic transects to resolve local structural complexity in Archean granite-greenstone terrains.

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Bellefleur, Gilles, Dr. Geological Survey of Canada. Boliden Mines. The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available.

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