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Howe - - Journal of Clinical Ethics 24 3 Steve Calvin - - Journal of Clinical Ethics Annette Fineberg - - Journal of Clinical Ethics Doubts About the Objectivity of Ontology. Astronomically Impoverished English - unknown. Rachel A. Clarke - - Nursing Ethics 2 3 Stoic Midwives at the Birth of Jurisprudence. Wright - - American Journal of Jurisprudence 28 1 Siegfried Mandel - - Nietzsche-Studien 19 1 Reflective Practice a Guide for Nurses and Midwives.

Beverley J. Taylor - Do Banks Loan Money? Michael Philips - - Journal of Business Ethics 1 3 - Eva Cignacco - - Nursing Ethics 9 2 Added to PP index Total views 12 , of 2,, Recent downloads 6 months 3 , of 2,, How can I increase my downloads? Sign in to use this feature. This article has no associated abstract. No keywords specified fix it. Ethics in Value Theory, Miscellaneous categorize this paper. Applied ethics. History of Western Philosophy. Following the birth, if the mother had an episiotomy or a tearing of the perineum , it is stitched.

The midwife does regular assessments for uterine contraction, fundal height , [17] and vaginal bleeding.

The midwife also monitors the baby's pulse rate, palpates the mother's abdomen to monitor the baby's position, and does vaginal checks as needed. If the birth deviates from the norm at any stage, the midwife requests assist from a more highly trained health care provider. Until the last century most women have used both the upright position and alternative positions to give birth. The lithotomy position was not used until the advent of forceps in the seventeenth century and since then childbirth has progressively moved from a woman supported experience in the home to a medical intervention within the hospital.

There are significant advantages to assuming an upright position in labor and birth, such as stronger and more efficient uterine contractions aiding cervical dilatation, increased pelvic inlet and outlet diameters and improved uterine contractility. For women who have a hospital birth, the minimum hospital stay is six hours. Women who leave before this do so against medical advice. Women may choose when to leave the hospital.

Full postnatal assessments are conducted daily whilst inpatient, or more frequently if needed. A postnatal assessment includes the woman's observations, general well being, breasts either a discussion and assistance with breastfeeding or a discussion about lactation suppression , abdominal palpation if she has not had a caesarean section to check for involution of the uterus, or a check of her caesarean wound the dressing doesn't need to be removed for this , a check of her perineum, particularly if she tore or had stitches, reviewing her lochia, ensuring she has passed urine and had her bowels open and checking for signs and symptoms of a DVT.

The baby is also checked for jaundice, signs of adequate feeding, or other concerns. The baby has a nursery exam between six and seventy two hours of birth to check for conditions such as heart defects, hip problems, or eye problems. In the community, the community midwife sees the woman at least until day ten. This does not mean she sees the woman and baby daily, but she cannot discharge them from her care until day ten at the earliest.

Postnatal checks include neonatal screening test NST, or heel prick test around day five. The baby is weighed and the midwife plans visits according to the health and needs of mother and baby. They are discharged to the care of the health visitor. At birth, the baby receives an Apgar score at, at the least, one minute and five minutes of age. This is a score out of 10 that assesses the baby on five different areas—each worth between 0 and 2 points.

These areas are: colour, respiratory effort, tone, heart rate, and response to stimuli. The midwife checks the baby for any obvious problems, weighs the baby, and measure head circumference.

The midwife ensures the cord has been clamped securely and the baby has the appropriate name tags on if in hospital. Babies lengths are not routinely measured. The midwife performs these checks as close to the mother as possible and returns the baby to the mother quickly.

Birth Chairs, Midwives, and Medicine

Skin-to-skin is encouraged, as this regulates the baby's heart rate, breathing, oxygen saturation, and temperature—and promotes bonding and breastfeeding. In some countries, such as Chile, the midwife is the professional who can direct neonatal intensive care units. This is an advantage for these professionals, because this professionals can use the knowledge in perinatology to bring a high quality care of the newborn, with medical or surgical conditions.

Midwifery-led continuity of care is where one or more midwives have the primary responsibility for the continuity of care for childbearing women, with a multidisciplinary network of consultation and referral with other health care providers. This is different from "medical-led care" where an obstetrician or family physician is primarily responsible.

For this reason, many say that the most important thing to look for in a midwife is comfortability with them, as one will go to them with every question or problem. According to a Cochrane review of public health systems in Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, "most women should be offered midwifery-led continuity models of care and women should be encouraged to ask for this option although caution should be exercised in applying this advice to women with substantial medical or obstetric complications.

There was no difference in the number of Caesarean sections. All trials in the Cochrane review included licensed midwives, and none included lay or traditional midwives. Also, no trial included out of hospital birth. In ancient Egypt , midwifery was a recognized female occupation, as attested by the Ebers Papyrus which dates from to BCE. Five columns of this papyrus deal with obstetrics and gynecology , especially concerning the acceleration of parturition the action or process of giving birth to offspring and the birth prognosis of the newborn.

The Westcar papyrus , dated to BCE, includes instructions for calculating the expected date of confinement and describes different styles of birth chairs. Bas reliefs in the royal birth rooms at Luxor and other temples also attest to the heavy presence of midwifery in this culture. Midwifery in Greco-Roman antiquity covered a wide range of women, including old women who continued folk medical traditions in the villages of the Roman Empire , trained midwives who garnered their knowledge from a variety of sources, and highly trained women who were considered physicians.

Agnodice or Agnodike Gr. In the East, some women advanced beyond the profession of midwife maia to that of gynaecologist iatros gynaikeios , translated as women's doctor , for which formal training was required. Also, there were some gynecological tracts circulating in the medical and educated circles of the East that were written by women with Greek names, although these women were few in number.

Birth Chairs, Midwives, and Medicine | University Press of Mississippi

Based on these facts, it would appear that midwifery in the East was a respectable profession in which respectable women could earn their livelihoods and enough esteem to publish works read and cited by male physicians. In fact, a number of Roman legal provisions strongly suggest that midwives enjoyed status and remuneration comparable to that of male doctors.

However, in the Roman West, information about practicing midwives comes mainly from funerary epitaphs. Two hypotheses are suggested by looking at a small sample of these epitaphs. The first is the midwifery was not a profession to which freeborn women of families that had enjoyed free status of several generations were attracted; therefore it seems that most midwives were of servile origin. Second, since most of these funeral epitaphs describe the women as freed, it can be proposed that midwives were generally valued enough, and earned enough income, to be able to gain their freedom.

It is not known from these epitaphs how certain slave women were selected for training as midwives. Slave girls may have been apprenticed, and it is most likely that mothers taught their daughters. The actual duties of the midwife in antiquity consisted mainly of assisting in the birthing process, although they may also have helped with other medical problems relating to women when needed.

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Often, the midwife would call for the assistance of a physician when a more difficult birth was anticipated. In many cases the midwife brought along two or three assistants.

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Therefore, during parturition, midwives brought a stool to the home where the delivery was to take place. In the seat of the birthstool was a crescent-shaped hole through which the baby would be delivered. The birthstool or chair often had armrests for the mother to grasp during the delivery. Most birthstools or chairs had backs which the patient could press against, but Soranus suggests that in some cases the chairs were backless and an assistant would stand behind the mother to support her.

The assistants may have helped by pushing downwards on the top of the mother's abdomen. Finally, the midwife received the infant, placed it in pieces of cloth, cut the umbilical cord , and cleansed the baby. Next, the midwives cleared away any and all mucus present from the nose, mouth, ears, or anus. Midwives were encouraged by Soranus to put olive oil in the baby's eyes to cleanse away any birth residue, and to place a piece of wool soaked in olive oil over the umbilical cord. After the delivery, the midwife made the initial call on whether or not an infant was healthy and fit to rear.

She inspected the newborn for congenital deformities and testing its cry to hear whether or not it was robust and hearty.


Ultimately, midwives made a determination about the chances for an infant's survival and likely recommended that a newborn with any severe deformities be exposed. A 2nd-century terracotta relief from the Ostian tomb of Scribonia Attice, wife of physician-surgeon M. Ulpius Amerimnus, details a childbirth scene.