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Above all, I do not find any evidence within Sinitic or hypothetical Sino-Tibetan of an initial "t" at any stage of their development. April 23, am. April 23, pm.

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Starostin et al. If this is correct, the Turkic origin of these words is then assured. Despite TMN 2, the Turk.

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Iranian currency was always written in riyals, but the sums were always talked about in tumans a tuman was 10 riyals, but the riyal had originally been a thousand of something else. Back in the old days, before the revolution, no one knew why, or when this started, or what the origin of tuman could have been. Not sure whether this has changed since the revolution, but when I was there in 98 and 99 it seemed to be the same from what I remember in earlier times.

Note however that our only certain evidence this number-word already existed around and before Touman's lifetime would be the Chinese; not until many centuries after he lived are the other languages with this word in them first attested. The application of the name "Hun" to the Xiongnu is also attested in the Sogdian Ancient Letters, dating to around A. More broadly, regarding my doubts concerning their reconstruction of a t- prefix in OC in general, I have commented on a couple of their proposals on LLog previously:.

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April 24, am. The graduate students and faculty members were naturally interested how these OC transcription sounded and Tharsen had no answer. That's what the capital letters, parentheses and brackets mean.

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  • Language Log » Tocharian, Turkic, and Old Sinitic "ten thousand".
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Their predecessors, it seems, often went with one option they considered most likely for reasons they didn't always spell out and left the others out of their notations altogether. This is by no means limited to Sinitic within historical linguistics, of course. I've seen IEists do this explicitly.

Adding to the point made by Brian Spooner sbove: the modern Persian "toman" is ostensibly 10, dinars. But the dinar is not a unit that has been used in living memory. The word is still known, of course. I remember hearing reports a few years ago that they were discussing a currency reform that would have made the colloquial toman an official unit. But I don't know if anything ever came of that.

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April 24, pm. Maybe the pharyngealized uvulars were a struggle? I would suggest that it is not so much a question of honesty as one of making things fit the confines of a rigid system. April 25, pm. Given that no explanation for the t- seems to have been found elsewhere, I thought I might offer up some idle speculation on my part….

Green - Data of Yegorov V. The Finno-Ugric languages. The Iranian languages.

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    An etymological dictionary of pre-thirteenth-century Turkish

    The Germanic languages. Main suorces: 1. Kluge F.

    Etymology of English

    Berlin -New York. Altenglisches etymologisches Woerterbuch.

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    Gotisches etymologisches Woerterbuch. Veen, R. Etymologisch woordenboek. Van Dale Lexikografie. Maykopian Hypothesis.

    An Etymological Dictionary Of Pre Thirteenth Century Turkish

    Sir Gerard Leslie Makins Clauson 28 April — 1 May was an English civil servant, businessman, and Orientalist best known for his studies of the Turkic languages. In , when his father was named Chief Secretary for Cyprus , he taught himself Turkish to complement his school Greek. During World War I , he fought in the battle of Gallipoli but spent the majority of his effort in signals intelligence , concerned with German and Ottoman army codes.

    Clauson actively engaged in unraveling their philologies, as well as Chinese Buddhist texts in the Tibetan script. Clauson also worked on the Tangut language , and in — wrote a Skeleton dictionary of the Hsi-hsia language. The manuscript copy is held at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London, [1] and was published as a facsimile edition in In he began work in the British Civil Service , which was to culminate in serving as the Assistant Under-Secretary of State in the Colonial Office , , in which capacity he chaired the International Wheat Conference, , and International Rubber Conference,