Guide Aircraft Navigation (transl. from Russian) [NASA TT F-524]

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Stave W serves as rudder; when it is missing the rocket describes any irregular zigzag curve without flying upward a longer period of time. In the more complicated models, I, first, in a similar vay, inject liquid oxygen into a flame containing much excess vapor of the fuel it bums up as did -Uie fuel in the hot oxygen vhether the fuel bums up in the oxygen gas or the oxygen in the vapor of the fuel is basic- ally the same thing. Into this hot gas vith oxygen content, I eigain inject liquid fuel.

In still larger machines, fuel and oxygen can in this iray be injected alternately a number of times in succession. It would already Taporize if kept in containers that conduct beat well, but that would be too slow a process for our purposes it must be promoted artificially by injecting fuel into the liquid oxjgeo. As is well known, combustion is very vigorous in liquid oxygen. The combustion gases then rise in the liquid oiygen cuid gasify it on the way. The transfer of heat from these small gas bubbles to the surrounding liquid is suff ici ently good.

The gaseous oxygen then enters pipe A, where fuel vapor from pipes m is also added. At Z in the atomizer the fuel is then sprayed into this hot gas of high oajgen content through fine jets pores in the wall. The nidth of the pipe at Z and the difference in pressure betveen B and Z as irell as the size of ihe pores must be calculated so that the quantities of liquid coming from B Just bum up before reaching the middle of pipe Z. What is achieved thereby is that the combustion gas streaming from the rocket has fairly well the same composition everyerhere.

On the irall of the atomizer the drops of liquid are relatively far apart. None of it is burnt up yet. By contrast, in the middle, the drops are small and have almost the speed of the surrounding oxygen, but here they are closer together so that the two circumstances even - 9 - each other out. The onlj exception is a narrow layer of gas on the edge. That is as it should be, so that it remains relatirely cool. Experiments in this regard have shown that normally there is no turbulence on the wall of LAVAL jets.

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Thus the gas which sweeps along the edge remains on the edge. That can be achieved by directing the combustion more toward the centre. Later we will get to know better means of protecting the wall from the heat. This protecting wall of gas can be thin. It remains in the chamber less than 2 seconds, so that it escapes before the heat has penetrated it. I would like to call this principle the "principle of dynamic heat protection". I call it "dynamicj' because the rocket while working is guarded against heat.

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The oven is situated below the atomizer. Here combustion is the strongest. Next follows a narrowing down, the neck F. This appears necessary to effect a certain daraaing up in the oven. Thereby I achieve the following t 1 the fuels remain in the oven longer 2 higher pressure i. The Jet is connected to F. He thought the fire Jet vould be inter- rupted, i. This is not possible Tith my rocket once it bums.

Due to inertia, the gas stream cannot iomediately escape through jet F, considerable pressure vill always be needed in chtunber to force out the total gas that has developed atmospheres. Hence, only the following question remains 1 If the rocket stops burning in the vacuum say, because ve have turned off the fuel supply and all the gas escapes from chambers Z and 0, will we be able to light the rocket again in case that is necessary?

This can be directly accomplished with the gas flame in pipe G. We only need to let this flame bum in a closed tank into which -we conduct a suitable quantity of gas and allo-w a correspondingly smaller quantity of gas to escape naturally, this is only one possible solution, there are still others. We thus hawe a gas of high oxygen content in this tanlc. But what happens to the excess gas which escapes into the vacuum space Z?

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One often reads that the temperature of a mass of gas must drop to absolute zero if the gas mass is allowed to expand freely. It all depends whether we hold the thermometer still or move it with the Jet of gas. As is well known, the temperature of an oiclosed quantity of gas is based on the fact that the single gas molecules whirr about.

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  8. If a thermometer is held into it, the gas mole- cules 8-trike its molecules and jar them, and -this vibration causes the -thermometer to get warm. The heat of a gas is therefore based on the irregul ar motion of its molecules. If all the molecules flew in the - 11 - scone direction at the scuue speed, ire voald not speak of heat but of Telocity. When these gas molecules suddenly have the opportunity of unlimited expansion I every gas molecule continues to fly in a straight line at the speed that it Just had.

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    The fastest moving molecules irill fly ahead and the sloirest-moving ones vill naturally fall behind. If, in addition, the space over which the gas mass has spread is relatively large, the effect is almost as if all the gas molecules came from one point and all the molecules flying side by side had ihe same speed. Therefore, ire can so carry along a thermometer that it receives no impact and Indicates a very lov temperature. For example, the builder of gas turbines knows to his chagrin that, in spite of the adiabatio expansion of the gases in the turbine Jet, the turbine plates heat up as though tiiey were in the combustion chamber itself.

    In spite of the strong rarefaction of the air, vigorous oxidation takes place, for the number of oxygen molecules has not decreased. Rather, the situation is as though we 12 - continuously pressed hot metal against the poirder until it is burnt up, or, even better, as though ve hetd piled the povder on a meteor irhich already bums up in thinnest upper layers of the atmosphere cf.

    What takes place here is that the oxygen vaporizes the outer layer of the drop and carries it airay, while the drop, due to its inertia, stays behind and is constantly in touch with new oxygen. The vapor that is carried along is set on fire by the oxygen, at which, because of the short distances, the gas currents caused by the drop are sufficient to effect a mixture.

    We will later see the significance of the fact that we here have no turbulence worth mentioning. Atomizer and oven are further enclosed in a pipe t in which the fuel rises, so that atomizer and oven are constantly surrounded by liquid. The vapor forming around the hot oven is conducted to burner G by pipe t. How to create the vapor for the space above the fuel in B need not worry us at present.

    A cartridge could be inserted in B which bums for so and so long, in so doing, the ratio of fuel to oxygen would regulate itself automatically. Fig, 7 Again, another solution cf. L, L are spaces filled with air, for with this construction fuel at L would only be dead weight. It has been objected that a pump would not work in liquid oxygen and it would be impossible to seal it here.

    Z Not even that is necessary. This pump does not have to work by far with the precision required, for example, of a pump in an air liquifying apparatus.